Listed at $16,780,500
Available for SaleGITANA158' 1997 Feadship
True Feadship Pedigree. This phrase fully quantifies every nuance of GITANA’s concept, design, elegant Dutch artisanship, and every detail of her
maintenance and upgrading since her original launch.
The design brilliance of John Munford coupled with the exterior styling flair of Guido de Groot and the unquestioned design, engineering, and
detailing expertise of the Feadship Devries yard, created this trend setting 499 GT Tri-deck Motor Yacht, which so elegantly bridges the gap between
the most classic Feadships and the more modern, higher freeboard designs.
In short, GITANA is simply stunning from all perspectives, and she serves up four decks of luxurious comfort and entertainment, with a multitude of
inviting outdoor living spaces for all to enjoy. Her Feadship Pedigree has been nurtured since her original launch, with all systems consistently
serviced and upgraded with an eye to preventative maintenance.
Motor yacht GITANA has just completed a six-month comprehensive structural, mechanical and cosmetic refit at Feadship’s Scheepsbouw in their Makkum, Netherlands drydock facility. GITANA will
be launched in turn-key condition including a new paint job from mast top to waterline utilizing state of the art premium Alexseal polyurethane with a gloss enhancer added. Feadship also completely
renovated the underwater surface area with a complete sand blasting back to bare steel then faired, undercoated and finished with coats of new antifouling paint. Additionally, she has had a
comprehensive mechanical and running gear refurbishing- shafts/seals/rudders/bearings, full stabilizer system and bow thruster rebuilds. GITANA will be completing her Lloyds 25-year classification
renewal with a flawless classification survey. The list of refit improvements to her essential systems is impressive, now totaling at over €3,000,000
This Feadship masterpiece will be delivered by her builder ready to cruise all oceans of the world in May 2022.
She may be inspected by appointment at the Feadship Shipyard, Makkum, Holland in drydock after April 1, 2022.
26 North Yachts is pleased to assist you in the purchase of this vessel. This boat is centrally listed by Northrop and Johnson. It is offered as a convenience by this broker/dealer to its clients and is not intended to convey direct representation of a particular vessel
|LOA:||158' (49 m)|
|Beam:||27' (9 m)|
|Fuel Capacity:||18,700 gal (70,788 L)|
|Fresh Water Capacity:||5,800 gal (21,956 L)|
|Holding Tank:||205 gal (777 L)|
|Model:||Tri Deck Motor Yacht|
|Cruising Speed:||12.9 Knots|
|Max Speed:||14.2 Knots|
True Feadship Pedigree. This phrase fully quantifies every nuance of GITANA’s concept, design, elegant Dutch artisanship, and every detail of her maintenance and upgrading since her original launch.
The design brilliance of John Munford coupled with the exterior styling flair of Guido de Groot and the unquestioned design, engineering, and detailing expertise of the Feadship Devries yard, created this trend setting 499 GT Tri- deck Motor Yacht, which so elegantly bridges the gap between the most classic Feadships and the more modern, higher freeboard designs.
In short, GITANA is simply stunning from all perspectives, and she serves up four decks of luxurious comfort and entertainment, with a multitude of inviting outdoor living spaces for all to enjoy. Her Feadship Pedigree has been nurtured since her original launch, with all systems consistently serviced and upgraded with an eye to preventative maintenance.
Motor yacht GITANA has just completed a seven-month comprehensive structural, mechanical and cosmetic refit at Feadship’s Scheepsbouw in their Makkum, Netherlands drydock facility. GITANA was recently launched in turn-key condition including a new paint job from mast top to waterline utilizing state of the art premium Alexseal polyurethane with a gloss enhancer added. Feadship also completely renovated the underwater surface area with a complete sand blasting back to bare steel then faired, undercoated and finished with coats of new antifouling paint. Additionally, she has had a comprehensive mechanical and running gear refurbishing, including shafts/seals/rudders/bearings, full stabilizer system and bow thruster rebuilds. GITANA has completed her Lloyds 25-year renewal with a flawless classification survey. The list of refit improvements to her essential systems is impressive, now totaling over €3,400,000!
Accommodations / Walkthrough
GITANA’S covered After Deck is comfortably furnished with “L’ shaped settees and cocktail tables port and starboard, along with additional casual
seating. The centerline stairs aft allows easy access to the swim platform, watersports equipment and dive lazarette.
Entry from the main deck aft to the main salon is via an automatic sliding door. When entering the main salon with its full height windows aft, as well
port and starboard offers a panoramic view of the world’s destinations. The open arrangement, with couch, cocktail table and additional comfortable
seating encourages relaxing interaction with the elegantly casual Deco - Caribbean motif with contrasting madrona burl and anigre, wood joiner
The open Dining Salon adjoins forward, with an oval dining table for twelve guests. Forward to starboard is the entry foyer which opens to the deck
companionway, joins the main staircase to the sky lounge and forward the owners on deck stateroom with private office.
The Galley is on the port side of the main deck forward of the dining area, with central island and large serving pantry adjoining the dining area which
is perfect for seamless service. The galley features huge windows—a chef’s dream! A dumb waiter services the pantry in the sky lounge above, further
facilitating ease of service.
GITANA features a full beam Master Stateroom forward on the main deck with King bed, extensive closet storage, owner’s desk, couch and chaise
lounge, entertainment system and expansive windows port/starboard to further enhance the spaciousness of the stateroom. The ensuite Master
Bathroom has a large steam shower, stunning Jacuzzi tub with skylight above, as well as a breathtaking mural behind.
Below deck are four Guest State rooms with complimentary styling, clean lines and the elegant John Munford designed millwork seen throughout the
yacht. There are two Queen staterooms with ensuite bathrooms with jacuzzi tub and shower. Two additional twin staterooms (each with a Pullman
bunk) have ensuite bathrooms with shower stalls complete with high finishes and luxurious marble work throughout. All staterooms have state of
the art entertainment systems, individual A/C controls and safes for guest security.
Captain and Crew: GITANA can accommodate up to 10 crew in 5 cabins, including a Captain's cabin behind the wheelhouse and 4 additional crew
cabins. Each crew cabin includes an ensuite bathroom. The crew mess is spacious and located aft of the crew cabins with adjacent laundry and walk
in refrigerators and freezers. Below deck hides an extensive wine, spare parts and dry storage area
Forward on the upper bridge deck the Wheelhouse has recently upgraded equipment and soft furnishings. A unique and attractive feature of GITANA
is the large 6.5m tender storage bay aft of the wheelhouse on the port side, which keeps all the owners deck areas free of unsightly tenders. There is a
crew pantry on the port side as well, serviced by the dumbwaiter, to facilitate the five-star crew service. Aft is the popular Sky Lounge, the main
entertaining space for guests to enjoy the card table and long couches with plenty of seating options. The wide, oversized windows on this deck offer
guests bird's eye views throughout their time onboard. A large screen TV and updated electronics including kaleidoscope system provide guests with
hours of entertainments.
The Bridge Deck Aft is the main al fresco dining location for GITANA, with a large oval table for seating up to 12 guests and comfortable aft seating
arrangements. This area is completely covered keeping guests protected from sun and rain while eating or lounging, Additionally, there are wing
doors on either side to protect this dining area from wind.
Sundeck / Flybridge
SUNDECK/FLYBRIDGE The sundeck is the guest's favorite area to lounge, sunbathe, and arrive into ports in style. The sundeck boasts an enclosed
gym area, which includes two treadmills, a weight bench and various weights, Jacuzzi and sun pads with ample seating for guests forward, and
comfortable guest seating arrangements and a BBQ aft, perfect for the chef's delights. 2020, all sundeck soft goods, cushions, etc., recovered.
Galley, Pantry and Laundry:
- -2 x Kupperbusch FEH 515 convection ovens (2014)
- -2 x Kupperbusch 4plate cook tops (2014)
- -Hoshizaki icemaker
- -2 x Foster PC 2/3 ERT fridges
- -Samsung microwave oven
- -Miele PG 8056 dishwasher
- -Bravior coffee maker
- -3 x Deep stainless steel sinks
- -Dumbwaiter main deck to bridge
- -Foster Ice Cube Maker FIM20
- -Crew Mess has one additional 3 m3 Refrigerators and freezer units
- -Favorita espresso machine
- -2 fridges
- -Trash compactor
- -3 x Miele Washing and Drying machines
- - 1 new dryer and 1 new washer, 2022
- - Miele Ironing system
Master Stateroom and Head
GITANA features a full beam Master Stateroom fully forward on the main deck with King bed, extensive closet storage, owner’s desk, couch and chaise
lounge, state of the art entertainment system and expansive windows port and starboard to further enhance the spaciousness of the staterom. The
ensuite bathroom has a large steam shower, stunning Jacuzzi tub with skylight above, and breathtaking mural behind.
Guest Stateroom(s) and Head(s)
Below deck are four guest staterooms with complimentary styling, clean lines and the elegant John Munford designed millwork seen throughout the
yacht. There are two queen staterooms with ensuite bathrooms with Jacuzzi tub and shower. Two additional twin staterooms (each with a Pullman
bunk) have ensuite bathrooms with shower stalls complete with high finishes and luxurious marble work throughout. All staterooms have state of
the art entertainment systems, individual A/C controls and safes for guest security.
Crew Quarters and Head(s)
GITANA can accommodate up to 10 crew in 6 cabins, including a Captain’s cabin behind the wheelhouse and 5 additional crew cabins. Each crew cabin
includes an ensuite bathroom. The crew mess is spacious and located aft of the crew cabins with adjacent laundry and walk in refrigerators and
freezers. Below deck hides an extensive spare parts and dry storage area.
Navigation and Electronics
Communication and GMDSS:
- -The majority of the GMDSS communications equipment was replaced in 2015
- -Inmarsat Fleet 500 Sat Phone with voice, data, fax, and GMDSS distress panel (2014)
- -Inmarsat C with full GMDSS distress panel
- -Furuno GMDSS NX700 Navtex Receiver and Printer with 580kHz and 490kHz (2015)
- -Furuno FS 1575 GMDSS SSB MF/HF Radio with distress panel (2015)
- -Furuno RT 2048 VHF DSC Radio
- -Sailor 6216 VHF DSC Radio (2015)
- -SureCall 2G/3G/4G direct connect cell phone system with AT&T International SIM Card (2014)
- -Pepwave WiFi Receiver and amplifier (2014)
- -2 x VOIP Voice lines
- -Panasonic digital super hybrid internal phone system, allowing all voice lines listed above to be accessed throughout the yacht
- -12 x ICOM F60 UHF Radio
Wing stations completely rebuilt and rewired (2022)
- -Transas Navigation Suite and independent PC running NaviSailor 4000 World Folio– (2018)
- -Nobeltec Navigation Suite and independent PC running Time Zero (2016)
- -2 x Furuno FR2010 Marine ARPA Radars
- -2 x Furuno GP 170 GPS Receivers (2017)
- -Anschutz AutoPilot
- -Anshutz Standard 20 Gyro Compass (2018)
- -SIMRAD GN70 Sat Compass with NEMA output and autopilot interface (2016)
- -MK3 Observer Magnetic Compass
- -SIMRAD IS 40 NEMA 2000 Wind Anemometer System– (2015)
- -Furuno 1100L Depth Sounder
- -(3) B&G Depth Meters; bridge & wing stations (2022)
- -JRC JLN203 Doppler Log
- -Carlisle and Finch Marine Search Light
- -Panasonic Digital Video Multiplexer WJFS with 5 security cameras
- -Jensen CD/Am/Fm Stereo
- -Wempe Barometer and Ship’s Clock
Internet, Wifi, and Onboard IT:
- -The majority of the IT system was retrofitted in 2014, which included a new Primary Server with email domain accts, full data integration
- from ship laptops and PCs, new IT switches, Kerio Network controller, all new cabling and 16 new WAPs, and all associated software
- -Dell Poweredge T-150 Server (Fall ’20) with domain and shore-side back up integration
- -Buffalo TerraStation 8 TB onboard back up HD
- -The vessel has wifi access throughout the boat
- -SeaTel 4006 Data Antenna upgraded with a Codan 8W BUC and Quadband LNB
- -The onboard wireless network is subdivided into networks for guests, crew, and A/V equipment, and Kerio Controlled
- -The networks can receive internet data from the VSAT, 4G Cellular, Fleet 500 and Rogue Wifi Receiver
Audio Visual Equipment:
- -Savant Media Control to all zones using Apple IPad, and accessible for control from a personal iPhone or IPAD for all zones using the Savant
- App. All zones can be linked and controlled for music via a “Party Mode”. All zones may also be controlled via keypads found throughout the
- -Kaleidescape Movie Server system including 1,800 DVD / Blu-Ray disk storage vault, accessible to all entertainment spaces, gym and Master
- Stateroom, and media host for movie downloads onboard
- -New KVH HD11 TVRO HD Satellite TV Antennas, cabling, and associated below deck equipment including arbitration via the KVH, and laptop
- or iPad control interface from the ACUs New 2016
Engine and Mechanical Equipment
- -2 x Caterpillar 3508DITA Diesels, 905 hp @ 1600 RPM with Reintjes reduction gears
- -Both Engines had a major overhaul in January 2015 @ 18,700 hours
- -Fully serviced by Pan Power during the refit and all classification machinery requirements conducted (2022)
- -Engine Hours since overhaul: Port 7,058 - Stbd 7,078
- -Total hours Port 25,984 - Stbd 26,124; March 4, 2022
- -Gearboxes: Reintjes WAF 540. Ratio 3.955:1
- -Engine Starting Batteries: Lifeline GPL8DA x 8 ( 4 p/ engine)
- -Emergency Battery: Deka Gel 12V x 6
- -Heinman & Hoppman A/C w/ chilled water cooling plant
- -2x Brainard compressor semihermetic 460 volts
- -Bow Thruster: Holland Roerpropeller PD kW - Removed, rebuilt & reinstalled by Feadship (22)
- -Quantum ARC 3000 Zero Speed stabilizers for comfort at anchor (8,500 hour Rebuild '22)
- -Steering System: TenfordHydraulic Steering Gear type JR2130 (Full refit by Feadship '22)
- -Marex electronic controls – ( 2014)
- -2 x five bladed skewed propellers (Reconditioned '22)
- -Oil bath stern tubes for noise reduction (Akerboom Full system check, new seals, and oil 22)
- -Cunifr seawater piping throughout
- -Fuel Separator & Filtration: Alfa Laval fuel centrifuge, MAB 103B (new '22)
- -2 x air cooled air compressors with deck connections
- -(2) Water makers by Blue Water Desalination: LX 3400gpd
- -Fresh Water System: U.V. Sterilizer MP2SL Aquafine
- -Jets Vacuum heads, fresh water
- -Sewage System: Hamann waste treatment system, HLContType II USCG and IMO approved. (Fully refit '22)
- -Bilge Water System: DVZ 250 VCOilmaster OWS, OMD2005-(Feadship overhaul '22)
- -Lube Oil Capacity: 2100 / 555 USg
- -Waste Oil Capacity: 2100 / 555 USG
- -Engine room fans with frequency controllers (soft starts)
- -3 x refrigeration system/units, all in stainless steel
- -Main Engines and Engine Room deck plating repainted 2022
Speed, Fuel Consumption & Range
Speed / Consumption per Hour / Range / RPM:
Maximum: 14.2 knots w 3500 nm Range @1600 RPM Consump/hr 72 GPH
Cruising: 12.9 knots w 4300 nm Range @1450 RPM Consump/hr 62 GPH
Economical: 10.2 knots w 5900 nm Range @1200 RPM
Consump/hr 32 GPH
Electrical Equipment Electrical System:
- -2 x Caterpillar 3306DIT generators, 156Kva, 330v, 3 phase, 50 Hz, each in sound boxes
- -Both Generators overhauled Spring 2021
- - Both Generators, full OEM service by Feadship ('22)
- -Generator Hours since upper end overhaul as of August 1, 2021: Port 1,091 - Stbd: 1,278
- -Total hours; Port 18,259 – Stbd 18,101
- -Generator Fuel Consumption: 4.8 GPH
- -The shore power unit is an ATLAS, Model #SPCL75KX5X3XH-MD, 3phase 75 KVA (2019)
- -380 Volt 3three phase AC, 50 Hz
- -220 Volt single and three phase AC, 50Hz
- -110 Volt single phase AC, 50/60 Hz
- -Unikat catalytic converters on both generators for clean pollution free operation
- -Combi filters for Unikats
- -Automatic load distribution and paralleling through switchboard
- -Full and comprehensive alarm and monitoring system IMTEC
- -Generator Starting Batteries: Lifeline GPL4DA x 4 (2 per A/E)
Deck and Hull
Steel Hull - Fully audio gauged for Lloyds Classification ('22)
Aluminum superstructure and composite mast
Counterblalanced Tender Bulwark Door
Built to and classed Lloyds +100A1, +LMC, MCA LY3 Compliant
Steering system completely serviced/rebuilt '22
All exterior surfaces prepared coated with Alexseal premium polyurethane with gloss enhancer by Feadship craftsman, 2022
Bottom fully sandblasted, faired, primed and coated with 3 coats of antifouling paint by Feadship craftsman 2022
Ground Tackle, Security, Safety & Fire Fighting Equipment
- -Sundeck Jacuzzi (10 persons)
- -Swim platform shower and deck cleats
- -5m Riviera Electro Hydraulic passarelle by Akerboom
- -2 x Steen 23.50 Electric Windlass with chain stoppers
- -2 x Steen 59 46 Electric warping capstans
- -2 x 360 KG Pool HHP type anchors, flush mounted - Refit '22
- -6 shots (540’) chain port, 6 shots (540’) starboard (2019)
- - Teak decks serviced: margin boards refitted '22
- -2 x Port side Bridge deck Gantry Davit: Van Driel SWL 2750 lbs.
- -Sundeck Davit: Ackerboom 94267 SWL 1250 lbs
- -Foredeck Davit: Nautical Structures Euro 1700 – SWL 1700 lbs. - Fully rebuilt by Feadship ('22)
- -CCTY System: Panasonic Digital Video Multiplexer WJFS
- -4 x Security cameras watching permanently or sequential mode with 2 monitors in Bridge and Crew Mess
- -Safes in Master, Captain and all Guest Cabins
- -4 x RDF 12Person life rafts (3 new life rafts '22)
- -12 x Life rings, 2 x Smoke Buoys
- -31 x Adult Solas approved life vests with strobes Children Solas approved life vests
- -12 x Survival Suits
- -2 x EPIRBS
- -54 Safety flares as required by class
- -Full MCA LY3 Compliance Medical Kit from Medaire
- -International-Code Flags
Fire Fighting: Re-Certified 2022
- -CO2 fire extinguishing in engine room and engineers control room Complete fire detection system
- -Eltek ANX 95 fire guard fire alarms
- -Cunifer fire piping in fire fighting system
- -Fire hoses and nozzles as required by class
- -Fireman axe
- -2 x Fireman’s suits, with breathing apparatus 52 x Extinguishers as required by class
- -Fire fighting equipment in accordance with MCA code classification for commercially registered vessels International-Code Flags
Tenders and Toys
- -Nouverania 430 DL w Yamaha F60 (2013)
- -Zodiac Bayrunner 550 w Yamaha F90 (2014)
- -(2) Two Person Hobie Kayaks
- -(1) 1 Person Pedal Kayak
GITANA has always been maintained to the highest standards with a focus on preventative maintenance, with an average of four months per year of
dedicated ‘down time’ for maintenance over the past decade.
GITANA FEADSHIP REFIT 2021/22
Hull & Deck
- - Steel Hull- fully audio gauged for Lloyds/MCA classification
- - Full rebuild of steering system
- - Sandblast, fair and finish all underwater surfaces; full preparation plus (3) coats antifouling, renew all zincs & propspeed
- - Comprehensive exterior paint refinishing by Feadship, waterline to stacks, with state of the art premium Alexseal polyurethane with a gloss enhancer added
- - (2) New windbreak doors.
- - Teak decks serviced; margin boards refitted
- - Full tailshaft surveys; propellers recondition/rebuild & balancing
- - Thruster removed, fully rebuilt & reinstalled
- - Complete 8,500 hour service to Stabilizers
- - New Alfa Laval heat exchanger
- - Complete Lloyds OEM service to Main Engines & Generators
- - Update/replace all engine gauges as required.
- - Refit of air handler & extraction system
- - Complete re-wiring & waterproofing of wing stations.
- - (3) New B&G depth meters, bridge and wing stations.
- - Plumbing Systems
- - All fire pumps, bilge and gray water pumps rebuilt/replaced as necessary
- - Hamman Black Water system, fully rebuilt
- - 22 new overboard valve/thru hull fittings
- - 12 new thru hull/Intake fittings
- - Replace (4) 3-way valves for bilge/fire pumps
- - (2) new Hot Water Heaters.
- - New Miele Washer & Dryer
- - All safety and fire-fighting equipment aboard updated & re-certified by Lloyds
- - Complete removal/rebuild Nautical Structures lifeboat davit.
- - (3) New RFD Liferafts, (1) re-certified
- - Full 25 Year Lloyds/MCA LY-3 Re-Classification
- Top End overhauls completed on the 3306 gensets in February
- New Anchutz STD22NX Gyro Compass. New Synthetic HDPE Sea Strainers from Feadship.
- New ATLAS 125 KvA Shorepower unit installed by GBR Marine in Ft Lauderdale, Florida, including inverter, converter, new containment box designed with proper ventilation fans, and associated cabling to the MSB.
- Regular planned maintenance on Main Engines and Generators, including removing and shop cleaning all heat exchangers and aftercoolers on the main engines, executed in Newport, Rhode Island.
- DPF soot burners removed, thermal bake and air knife cleaning and reinstallation in Newport, Rhode Island.
- New aft seal package completed by Akerboom, and intermediate survey completed with Lloyds Register in Newport including tank
- inspections for fuel, sump, and fresh water tanks.
- Full bottom paint
- New Anchor chains, kenter shackles, swivels. 6 shackles per side
- New Dive Compressor system installed by Moon Dog Divers, Ft Lauderdale, Florida.
- New exterior soft goods on Sundeck and Bridge Deck. New carpet to Bridge, service, and crew areas
- Full replacement of Main engine, genset, house, and GMDSS Battery banks
- Replacement of the ship’s IT server and back up hard drives
- New Canvas biminis
- Repaint of engine room and lazarette bilge spaces, forepeak chain locker, and Bosun locker, and Genset Sound Insulation boxes
2017 Yard period included:
- In-frame overhauls on the Caterpillar 3306 A/E’s, completed by Pan Power in Europe
- Repainting the main engines and Engine Room Deck Plating.
The 20 Year Special survey was completed 2016/17, all in good order and no conditions of class.
- Driveline was full dismantled, surveyed, and reinstalled with new Centa Links and Vulkan Couplings, and new aft seals on the 3508s, new
- engine and gearboxes mounts by Rubber Design completed by Akerboom
- The thickness measurement audio gauging was also completed with no issues, all plate in good shape
2016 improvements included
- New water makers
- New DIEF A/E control system including auto and manual synch control completed by MSHS in Ft Lauderdale, Florida, USA
- New KVH HD-11 Sat TV Antennas with Smart Switch Arbitration control
- All cuni freshwater fill supply lines, fresh water manifold, and freshwater distribution lines with the engine room bulkhead to bulkhead
A follow-up yard period in 2015 included
- In-frame overhauls of the CAT 3508 main engines
- Replacement of the engine and A/E exhaust lagging
- Replacement of the majority of the GMDSS communications equipment on the bridge
- 8500 hour full overhaul of the quantum zero-speed stabilizers
M/Y GITANA Engineering Improvements 2013-2021
The vessel completed an 8-month refit in 2013/2014 which included
- Full paint job from mast to water line using DuPont M600 at Rybovich
- Bottom bead blast and full recoat of bottom paint
- Retrofit of new Marex Clutch Controls
- Full refit of the vessel’s A/V system to Savant / Kaleidescape
- Full interior refit of all soft goods and furniture and remodel of the master bathroom with new soaker tub
- New teak sundeck, re-seam of all other decks
- Retrofit of the interior lighting system
GITANA is a contemporary classic Feadship, fully refit by her manufacturer and ready to cruise all oceans. She will be available for inspections by
appointment at the Feadship, Makkum, Holland yard after 25 March, 2022, until her refit completion and departure for Tarragona, Spain in Mid-May. Her
comprehensive video is available upon request
Engine and generator hours are as of the date of the original listing and are a representation of what the listing broker is told by the owner and/or actual reading of the engine hour meters. The broker cannot guarantee the true hours. It is the responsibility of the purchaser and/or his agent to verify engine hours, warranties implied or otherwise and major overhauls as well as all other representations noted on the listing brochure.
The company offers the details of this vessel in good faith but cannot guarantee or warrant the accuracy of this information nor warrant the condition of the vessel. A buyer should instruct his agents, or his surveyors, to investigate such details as the buyer desires validated. This vessel is offered subject to prior sale, price change or withdrawal without notice.